What are the Types of NGOs in India?

  • January 23, 2024
  • Registrationwala
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NGOs are organisations that aim to provide aid and support to those who are underprivileged and in need. They are individuals who are passionate about making a positive impact through social service. So, they create an NGO, or Non-Governmental Organization for the betterment of society.


However, they engage in non-profit activities that are completely based on social causes, including environmental work, human rights advocacy, and social justice. NGOs work to bring about political or social change on a larger scale. They are crucial for community development, promoting citizen involvement, and improving the quality of life for everyone.

Introduction to NGOs

NGOs are organisations that operate independently without the involvement of government authorities. They can be registered as Trusts, Society & Section 8 companies in our country, and it completely depends on their intended purpose. The main focus of these institutions is to work towards social causes and not-for-profit.


Each type of NGO has its specific criteria for registration. So, if you want to set up an NGO, apply to obtain a Section 8 company registration certificate, and for that, you must file an online application, SPICe+, on the MCA's portal. On the other hand, if you want to register an NGO under trust. Then it requires you to complete a different process. To register an NGO, below are some of the steps that are followed:

  • Select a suitable name as per the Emblems and Names Act, of 1950.
  • Draft the trust deed.
  • Choose Settlers & Trustees of The Trust
  • Prepare Memorandum of Association
  • Make payment regarding trust registration fees
  • Collect the trust deed copy from the Registrar’s office
  • Submit the trust deed to the local registrar
  • Obtain the registration certificate within seven days

Role of NGOs in Our Society

The Non-Government Organisations (NGOs) are important for the society beyond those of government and the private sector. They work towards multiple goals, that focus on areas that require additional support or where existing structures fall short. Some of the key functions of NGOs are written below.

1. Focusing on Social and Environmental Issues

The NGOs raise awareness about issues such as poverty, inequality, human rights abuses, environmental degradation, and more.  Also, they promote human rights and social justice such as marginalised groups like women, children, minorities, and refugees. They fight against discrimination, and equality, and empower individuals and communities to claim their rights.


Similarly, the NGOs take several steps to protect our planet. They work on conservation efforts, raise awareness about environmental issues, and advocate for sustainable practices.

2. Fostering Participation and Empowerment

NGOs provide support to communities, they work hand-in-hand to understand the needs of locals and create a solution accordingly. However, they act as a bridge between communities and government, private entities for peaceful conflict resolution. The NGOs are changemakers that empower the communities and strengthen democracy.

3. Innovation and Knowledge Sharing

The NGOs usually develop new solutions to social and environmental challenges. They experiment with new approaches, test practices, and share the solution with others. However, the research of NGOs is based on critical issues. To cater for these problems, NGOs generate evidence-based solutions and challenge harmful stereotypes and misinformation spread into society.

Types of NGOs based on Orientation

The types of NGOs are based on two factors, one is orientation and the other one is level of operations. The following are the types of NGOs based in India:

Charitable Orientation

The charitable orientation is the type of organisation that focuses on direct aid and assistance to individuals. These NGOs prioritise meeting basic needs such as food, shelter, healthcare, education and other essential services. The primary services include distributing resources, delivering services, disaster relief and advocacy. Examples of charity-oriented NGOs are Akshaya Patra Foundation, Goonj, and Smile Foundation. 


However, they follow the top-down approach from design to implementation of the program with less emphasis on beneficiary participation. They work on immediate needs and short-term solutions instead of long-term community development initiatives.

Service Orientation

Service orientation refers to a type of organization that focuses on providing specific services such as running schools, operating clinics, organising awareness campaigns, and helping communities develop skills, find jobs and do business. 


They address the critical needs in communities and work on tackling the underlying issues. Some of the examples of service-oriented NGOs are the Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA), Pratham Education Foundation, and Vikas Adhyayan Kendra (VAK).

Participatory Orientation

These NGOs are considered self-help projects and the local individuals are engaged in the deployment of a project by contributing in terms of money, land, tools, labour, materials, etc.


The participatory orientation works on sustainable projects, as it is because when the communities take ownership they are interested in the success of the project. Examples of these NGOs are Mahan Dalit Samaj Sangathan (MDSS), PRADAN, and Adivasi Munnetra Sangam (AMS).

Empowering Orientation

These NGOs empower individuals and communities with the knowledge, skills, and resources. So, they build leadership qualities, educate individuals about their fundamental rights and empower them to claim these rights responsibly. Some examples are Gram Vikas Kendra (GVK), Jagori Rural Development Foundation, and Barefoot College.

Types of NGOs based on Level of Operation

The second type of NGOs that are based on the level of operation are as follows:

Community-based Non- Governmental Organizations (CBOs)

The CBOs, or Community-based Non-Governmental Organizations, are local, non-profit groups that work directly with community members. They help them with their specific needs and challenges and act as a bridge between government programs and individual needs. 


The benefits of these organisations are that they have a deep understanding of local situations and create solutions accordingly. Also, they advocate for the rights and needs of marginalized groups, that are not heard by the government or larger organisations. Examples of CBOs are neighbourhood associations, parent-teacher associations, youth groups, and women’s cooperatives.

Citywide Non-Governmental Organizations

These citywide NGOs operate at a larger scale in urban areas to tackle the challenges, this is specifically for cities and their diverse population. These NGOs operate across multiple neighbourhoods and communities within a city to catering a wide range of needs.


Citywide NGOs collaborate with local governments, other NGOs, businesses and academic institutions to achieve the goals. Some examples of these NGOs are Bangalore Cares, Mumbai Mobile Creches, and Delhi Greens.

National level Non-Governmental Organizations

The National NGOs operate across the entire country, multiple states and regions within India. They establish networks, branches and partnerships throughout the country. Their focus extends beyond the local communities and often involves national-level policy advocacy.


Examples of National level NGOs are the Red Cross Society of India, Pratham Education Foundation, and Akshaya Patra Foundation. The benefits of these NGOs are they can collect larger resources and have diverse stakeholders facilitate nationwide impact. 

International NGOs

The International Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) operate beyond the national borders. However, they take the network and funding sources across different countries and work on international issues such as climate change, human rights, or global health. The NGOs required funding from multiple sources to operate seamlessly. 


Also, they bring knowledge and the best practices from multiple countries to solve the local challenges. Examples of INGOs are Doctors Without Borders, Oxfam India, and World Wildlife Fund (WWF).


The NGOs are an important part of every country, as they work on social issues and empower communities on multiple levels. They required funding from various sources such as private donations & membership due to government contributions. If you want to set up an NGO under Section 8 Company, then reach out to Registrationwala for complete assistance. For any query, connect with us.

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